India x UK: State of the tech markets
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What you need to know:

Quick, shareable insights from this year's findings

Most developers in India as well as in the UK identified themselves as front-end, back-end and full-stack developers which is consistent with data from previous years.

Overall web development skills are extremely high in demand in both countries.

Professional developers reported that they attended a college without earning a degree (14%) in the UK which was seven times more than in India.

Almost 61% reported that they are either slightly or very satisfied with their job in the UK. On contrary, it is approximately 41% in India.

Windows is the main operating system in both countries. However, Indian developers use a Linux-based operating system more than UK developers. This is what we have seen over the last years as well.

Around 11% reported that they work as an independent contractor, freelancer, or self employed in the UK which is almost two times more than in India (6%).

Better compensation is the main reason for seeking a new position.

Wanting to work with new technologies is a more important key driver in looking for a new job in India (18%) than in the UK (14%).

Languages, frameworks, and other technologies they'd be working with is the most important factor when being employed in a company. This counts for India and the UK.

Office environment or company culture and Opportunities for professional development are one of the most important factors when being employed in a company for Indian developers. We see similar patterns for UK developers.

Overview
The underlying data of this publication originates from the annual Stackoverflow developer survey of 2020 in which roughly 65,000 IT professionals were surveyed on their educational background, what they wish for their career, and what kind of technologies they used. Technology is continuously disrupting and transforming incumbent industries and is tackling some of the world's biggest challenges. This report focuses on the significant differences between the Indian and the UK tech market.
We at GoTalent aspire to help all innovative companies build outstanding technical teams. We empower hiring departments to find the best technical candidates from all over the world. Our core mission is to make outstanding technical candidates easily accessible for companies.
As a result of the data available, we broke this analysis down into the following countries: India, United Kingdom, United States, Germany, and Global.
Developer Profile

Developer Type

About 23% of professional developers are back-end developers in India. In comparison, the UK has approximately 25%. The most common combination includes back-end, front-end, and full-stack developers for both countries. The results have remained similar to the previous two years.
Developer, back-end
23%
Developer, full-stack
22%
Developer, front-end
17%
Developer, mobile
11%
Developer, desktop or enterprise applications
9%
Designer
5%
Database administrator
4%
Data scientist or machine learning specialist
3%
Developer, QA or test
3%
Developer, embedded applications or devices
3%
Developer, back-end
25%
Developer, full-stack
23%
Developer, front-end
14%
Developer, mobile
10%
Developer, desktop or enterprise applications
6%
Designer
5%
Database administrator
5%
Data scientist or machine learning specialist
5%
Developer, QA or test
4%
Developer, desktop or enterprise applications
3%
Developer, back-end
23%
Developer, full-stack
22%
Developer, front-end
14%
Developer, mobile
11%
Developer, desktop or enterprise applications
6%
Designer
6%
Database administrator
6%
Data scientist or machine learning specialist
5%
Developer, QA or test
4%
Developer, embedded applications or devices
3%
Developer, back-end
24%
Developer, full-stack
21%
Developer, front-end
15%
Developer, mobile
10%
Developer, desktop or enterprise applications
6%
Designer
6%
Database administrator
5%
Data scientist or machine learning specialist
5%
Developer, QA or test
4%
Developer, embedded applications or devices
4%
Developer, back-end
23%
Developer, full-stack
22%
Developer, front-end
15%
Developer, mobile
10%
Developer, desktop or enterprise applications
8%
Designer
5%
Database administrator
5%
Data scientist or machine learning specialist
4%
Developer, QA or test
4%
Developer, embedded applications or devices
4%

Educational Attainment

In the UK, approximately 73% of developers have a Bachelor's or Master's degree, compared to 95% in India. This pattern is similar to the previous two years. Interestingly, 14% of developers in the UK mentioned attending college/university without earning a degree. This is seven times more than in India.
Furthermore, approximately 6% completed other doctoral degrees in the UK, while in India the proportion is only approximately 0.3%.
Bachelor's degree (B.A., B.S., B.Eng., etc.)
70.5%
Master's degree (M.A., M.S., M.Eng., MBA, etc.)
24.3%
Some college/university study without earning a degree
2.4%
Secondary school (e.g. American high school, German Realschule or Gymnasium, etc.)
0.9%
I never completed any formal education
0.7%
Professional degree (JD, MD, etc.)
0.6%
Other doctoral degree (Ph.D., Ed.D., etc.)
0.3%
Primary/elementary school
0.2%
Associate degree (A.A., A.S., etc.)
0.1%
Bachelor's degree (B.A., B.S., B.Eng., etc.)
48.5%
Master's degree (M.A., M.S., M.Eng., MBA, etc.)
24.6%
Some college/university study without earning a degree
13.6%
Other doctoral degree (Ph.D., Ed.D., etc.)
5.8%
Secondary school (e.g. American high school, German Realschule or Gymnasium, etc.)
4.8%
Associate degree (A.A., A.S.,etc.)
1.7%
Professional degree (JD, MD, etc.)
0.5%
I never completed any formal education
0.3%
Primary/elementary school
0.2%
Master's degree (M.A., M.S., M.Eng., MBA, etc.)
36.5%
Bachelor's degree (B.A., B.S., B.Eng., etc.)
30.2%
Secondary school (e.g. American high school, German Realschule or Gymnasium, etc.)
11.6%
Some college/university study without earning a degree
10.9%
Other doctoral degree (Ph.D., Ed.D., etc.)
5.7%
Associate degree (A.A., A.S., etc.)
2.8%
Professional degree (JD, MD, etc.)
1.7%
Primary/elementary school
0.4%
I never completed any formal education
0.2%
Master's degree (M.A., M.S., M.Eng., MBA, etc.)
54.8%
Bachelor's degree (B.A., B.S., B.Eng., etc.)
18.8%
Secondary school (e.g. American high school, German Realschule or Gymnasium, etc.)
11.2%
Some college/university study without earning a degree
5.8%
Other doctoral degree (Ph.D., Ed.D., etc.)
4.6%
Associate degree (A.A., A.S., etc.)
3.1%
Professional degree (JD, MD, etc.)
0.6%
Primary/elementary school
0.6%
I never completed any formal education
0.5%
Bachelor's degree (B.A., B.S., B.Eng., etc.)
46.2%
Master's degree (M.A., M.S., M.Eng., MBA, etc.)
22.8%
Some college/university study without earning a degree
12.6%
Secondary school (e.g. American high school, German Realschule or Gymnasium, etc.)
8.3%
Associate degree (A.A., A.S., etc.)
3.2%
Other doctoral degree (Ph.D., Ed.D., etc.)
2.9%
Primary/elementary school
1.7%
Professional degree (JD, MD, etc.)
1.4%
I never completed any formal education
0.9%

Undergraduate Majors

Computer Science tops the Undergraduate Major list in India (71%) and in the UK (54%). Of the professional developers in the UK, it is more spread between various types of degrees. This finding reinforces what we have see over the last years.
Computer Science, computer engineering, or software engineering
71.1%
Another engineering discipline (such as civil, electrical, mechanical, etc.)
14.2%
Information systems, information technology, or system administration
7.2%
A natural science (such as biology, chemistry, physics, etc.)
4.3%
Mathematics or statistics
1%
A humanities discipline (such as literature, history, philosophy, etc.)
0.8%
A social science (such as anthropology, psychology, political science, etc.)
0.7%
A business discipline (such as accounting, finance, marketing, etc.)
0.3%
Fine arts or performing arts (such as graphic design, music, studio art, etc.)
0.2%
Web development or web design
0.2%
Computer Science, computer engineering, or software engineering
55.4%
Another engineering discipline (such as civil, electrical, mechanical, etc.)
9.4%
Information systems, information technology, or system administration
8.5%
A natural science (such as biology, chemistry, physics, etc.)
7.4%
Mathematics or statistics
5.2%
A humanities discipline (such as literature, history, philosophy, etc.)
3.3%
A social science (such as anthropology, psychology, political science, etc.)
3.3%
A business discipline (such as accounting, finance, marketing, etc.)
2.7%
Fine arts or performing arts (such as graphic design, music, studio art, etc.)
2.7%
Web development or web design
2.1%
Computer Science, computer engineering, or software engineering
66.2%
Another engineering discipline (such as civil, electrical, mechanical, etc.)
8.3%
Information systems, information technology, or system administration
6.7%
A natural science (such as biology, chemistry, physics, etc.)
6%
Mathematics or statistics
4.6%
A humanities discipline (such as literature, history, philosophy, etc.)
2.4%
A social science (such as anthropology, psychology, political science, etc.)
1.7%
A business discipline (such as accounting, finance, marketing, etc.)
1.5%
Fine arts or performing arts (such as graphic design, music, studio art, etc.)
1.5%
Web development or web design
1.1%
Computer Science, computer engineering, or software engineering
56.7%
Another engineering discipline (such as civil, electrical, mechanical, etc.)
7.9%
Information systems, information technology, or system administration
7.2%
A natural science (such as biology, chemistry, physics, etc.)
5.5%
Mathematics or statistics
4.6%
A humanities discipline (such as literature, history, philosophy, etc.)
4.3%
A social science (such as anthropology, psychology, political science, etc.)
4.1%
A business discipline (such as accounting, finance, marketing, etc.)
4%
Fine arts or performing arts (such as graphic design, music, studio art, etc.)
3.3%
Web development or web design
2.4%
Computer Science, computer engineering, or software engineering
62.9%
Another engineering discipline (such as civil, electrical, mechanical, etc.)
9.4%
Information systems, information technology, or system administration
8%
A natural science (such as biology, chemistry, physics, etc.)
4.4%
Mathematics or statistics
3.7%
A humanities discipline (such as literature, history, philosophy, etc.)
3.5%
A social science (such as anthropology, psychology, political science, etc.)
2.7%
A business discipline (such as accounting, finance, marketing, etc.)
2.1%
Fine arts or performing arts (such as graphic design, music, studio art, etc.)
1.8%
Web development or web design
1.5%
Technology

Programming Languages

JavaScript is the most commonly used programming language in India and the UK. This is consistent with what we observed over the last few years. Generally, web development skills are in high demand in both countries. C languages are losing popularity.
JavaScript
17.9%
HTML/CSS
16.2%
SQL
13.3%
Java
11.9%
Python
8.7%
PHP
7.5%
C
6.8%
TypeScript
6.3%
C++
5.9%
C#
5.5%
JavaScript
17.2%
HTML/CSS
15.5%
SQL
14.1%
Python
10.3%
Java
9.9%
Bash/Shell/PowerShell
9.9%
C#
6.9%
PHP
6.8%
TypeScript
5.3%
C++
4.1%
JavaScript
15.3%
HTML/CSS
14.2%
SQL
12.4%
Python
11.1%
Java
10.6%
Bash/Shell/PowerShell
10.2%
C#
6.9%
PHP
6.8%
TypeScript
6.4%
C++
6.1%
JavaScript
16.7%
HTML/CSS
15.1%
SQL
14.2%
Python
11.5%
Bash/Shell/PowerShell
11%
C#
8.2%
Java
7.9%
TypeScript
6.7%
C++
4.6%
PHP
4.1%
JavaScript
16.5%
HTML/CSS
15.4%
SQL
13.4%
Python
10.8%
Java
9.8%
Bash/Shell/PowerShell
8.1%
C#
7.7%
PHP
6.4%
TypeScript
6.2%
C++
5.7%

Web Frameworks

Approximately 20% of all professional developers in India said that they most commonly use jQuery, while it is about 11% in the UK. In India, jQuery is two times as popular as Angular (approximately 14%), whilst in the UK it is 5%. Indian developers reported using Angular three times more than UK developers do.
jQuery
20.1%
Angular
14.3%
React.js
12.9%
Angular.js
10%
Express
9.3%
Spring
8.2%
ASP.NET
7.6%
Django
6.5%
Laravel
5.9%
Flask
5.2%
jQuery
21.3%
React.js
20.7%
ASP.NET
11.3%
ASP.NET Core
11.2%
Angular
10.3%
Vue.js
7.4%
Express
5.3%
Angular.js
4.8%
Spring
4.4%
Flask
3.3%
jQuery
18.4%
React.js
14.8%
Angular
12.5%
Spring
11%
Vue.js
9.8%
Express
8.6%
ASP.NET Core
6.7%
Angular.js
6.3%
ASP.NET
6.1%
Flask
5.8%
jQuery
17.7%
React.js
17.4%
ASP.NET
10.9%
ASP.NET Core
9.8%
Angular
9.6%
Vue.js
8.7%
Express
7%
Angular.js
6.6%
Spring
6.6%
Flask
5.7%
jQuery
20.5%
React.js
17.4%
ASP.NET
10%
ASP.NET Core
9.9%
Angular
9.7%
Vue.js
8.7%
Express
7%
Angular.js
6.6%
Spring
5.6%
Flask
4.6%

Other Frameworks

Professional developers were asked which frameworks they use on a daily basis. Node.js is most commonly used in both countries. This is similar to what we found from last year. In India, Node.js (30%) is twice as commonly used as .NET (15%). In the UK, the ratio is slightly different. Node.js (25%) and .NET (24%) were close to evenly split. Interestingly, Pandas is twice as common in the UK (19%) as it is in India (10%).
Node.js
30.1%
.NET
15%
Pandas
10.2%
.NET Core
9.3%
React Native
9%
TensorFlow
6.7%
Flutter
6.2%
Cordova
5.2%
Hadoop
4.3%
Apache Spark
4%
Node.js
24.6%
.NET
23.2%
Pandas
19.5%
.NET Core
6.4%
React Native
6.4%
TensorFlow
4.4%
Flutter
4.3%
Cordova
4.2%
Hadoop
3.8%
Apache Spark
3.2%
Node.js
28.5%
.NET
17%
.NET Core
12.6%
Pandas
8.6%
TensorFlow
6.8%
Ansible
6.7%
Unity 3D
6%
Teraform
5.2%
React Native
4.7%
Keras
3.9%
Node.js
27.6%
.NET
20.3%
.NET Core
16.4%
Pandas
8.5%
Teraform
5.3%
React Native
5.1%
TensorFlow
4.9%
Ansible
4.7%
Unity 3D
4%
Apache Spark
3.2%
Node.js
28.1%
.NET
19.1%
.NET Core
14.5%
Pandas
8.5%
TensorFlow
6.3%
React Native
6.2%
Flutter
6%
Cordova
4%
Hadoop
3.9%
Apache Spark
3.4%

Databases

In India and the UK, MySQL is the most commonly used database technology (26% and 18%). This pattern is consistent with the previous two years. SQLite and MongoDB are almost evenly split in India. Microsoft SQL Server (18%) and PostgreSQL (14%) are the more commonly used database applications in the UK.
MySQL
25.8%
SQLite
12.3%
MongoDB
12.1%
PostgreSQL
10%
Microsoft SQL Server
9.8%
Oracle
7.9%
Firebase
7.8%
Redis
5.9%
Elasticsearch
4.4%
MariaDB
4%
MySQL
18.5%
Microsoft SQL Server
17.7%
PostgreSQL
13.7%
SQLite
9.9%
MongoDB
9.5%
Redis
8.5%
Elasticsearch
6.7%
MariaDB
5.6%
DynamoDB
5%
Oracle
4.9%
MySQL
18.5%
PostgreSQL
16.2%
SQLite
13%
Microsoft SQL Server
9.7%
MariaDB
9.6%
MongoDB
9.5%
Redis
7.2%
Elasticsearch
7.1%
Oracle
6.1%
Firebase
3.1%
MySQL
18%
Microsoft SQL Server
16.4%
PostgreSQL
16.2%
SQLite
11%
MongoDB
8.9%
Redis
8.9%
Elasticsearch
6.5%
Oracle
5.2%
MariaDB
4.5%
DynamoDB
4.4%
MySQL
18.5%
PostgreSQL
16.2%
SQLite
13%
Microsoft SQL Server
9.7%
MariaDB
9.5%
MongoDB
8.5%
Redis
6.7%
Elasticsearch
6.6%
Oracle
6%
Firebase
5.3%

Operating System

Almost 50% of professional developers in India use Windows as their primary operating system. In the UK, it is approximately 45%. This pattern is similar to the last two years. Additionally, 31% of Indian professional developers use a Linux-based operating system. In contrast, MacOS comes in second in the UK. These results are consistent with what we observed in the past two years.
Windows
47.8%
Linux-based
31.4%
MacOS
20.7%
BSD
0.1%
Windows
50.8%
MacOS
30.5%
Linux-based
18.4%
BSD
0.3%
Windows
42.8%
Linux-based
30%
MacOS
27.1%
BSD
0.1%
Windows
42.3%
Linux-based
36.8%
MacOS
20.8%
BSD
0.1%
Windows
48.3%
Linux-based
26.6%
MacOS
25%
BSD
0.1%
Work

Job Hunt Factors

Based on developers responses, we see similar patterns in both India and the UK. Better compensation is more important in India (18.6%) than the UK (17.8%). 'Better compensation' and 'Wanting to work with new technologies' were closer to each other in India. Both of them are highly significant for Indian developers.
Better compensation
18.6%
Wanting to work with new technologies
17.8%
Growth or leadership opportunities
16.3%
Better work/life balance
14.2%
Curious about other opportunities
14.1%
Looking to relocate
6.4%
Wanting to share accomplishments with a wider network
4.6%
Trouble with leadership at my company
3.4%
Trouble with my direct manager
2.4%
Having a bad day (or week or month) at work
2.2%
Better compensation
17.8%
Growth or leadership opportunities
14.6%
Curious about other opportunities
14.5%
Wanting to work with new technologies
13.6%
Better work/life balance
10.1%
Trouble with leadership at my company
8.6%
Having a bad day (or week or month) at work
6.1%
Looking to relocate
5.9%
Trouble with my direct manager
5.4%
Just because
3.4%
Better compensation
17.3%
Curious about other opportunities
15.7%
Wanting to work with new technologies
14.8%
Better work/life balance
11.4%
Growth or leadership opportuities
11%
Trouble with leadership at my company
8.4%
Looking to relocate
6.2%
Having a bad day (or week or month) at work
6.1%
Trouble with my direct manager
5%
Just because
4.1%
Better compensation
24.6%
Growth or leadership opportunities
16.2%
Curious about other opportunities
15.1%
Wanting to work with new technologies
11.6%
Better work/life balance
8.6%
Trouble with leadership at my company
6.7%
Having a bad day (or week or month) at work
5.1%
Looking to relocate
4.8%
Trouble with my direct manager
4.2%
Just because
3.1%
Better compensation
17.9%
Wanting to work with new technologies
15%
Curious about other opportunities
14.7%
Growth or leadership opportunities
13.6%
Better work/life balance
12.4%
Trouble with leadership at my company
6.9%
Looking to relocate
6.8%
Having a bad day (or week or month) at work
5.2%
Trouble with my direct manager
4.4%
Just because
3.1%

Most Important Job Factors

Professional developers compared two jobs with the same compensation, benefits, and location. They considered which factors would most influence their personal choice. Overall, we see similar patterns between India and the UK. Interestingly, 'Office environment or company culture' and 'Opportunities for professional development' were almost equally split among India this year. Last year 'Opportunities for professional development' was slightly more important. In the UK we see similar patterns.
Languages, frameworks, and other technologies I'd be working with
18.7%
Office environment or company culture
17.2%
Opportunities for professional development
16.5%
Flex time or a flexible schedule
15.1%
Remote work options
8.7%
Financial performance or funding status of the company or organization
6.5%
How widely used or impactful my work output would be
6.1%
Family friendliness
4.6%
Industry that I'd be working in
3.6%
Specific department or team I'd be working on
3.0%
Languages, frameworks, and other technologies I'd be working with
18.8%
Office environment or company culture
17.3%
Flex time or a flexible schedule
14.8%
Opportunities for professional development
13.6%
Remote work options
12.3%
How widely used or impactful my work output would be
7.8%
Industry that I'd be working in
5.7%
Family friendliness
3.7%
Specific department or team I'd be working on
3.3%
Diversity of the company or organization
2.7%
Languages, frameworks, and other technologies I'd be working with
18.5%
Flex time or a flexible schedule
17.8%
Office environment or company culture
15.9%
Opportunities for professional development
12%
Remote work options
10.3%
How widely used or impactful my work output would be
6.9%
Family friendliness
6%
Industry that I'd be working in
5.2%
Specific department or team I'd be working on
4.7%
Financial performance or funding status of the company or organization
2.7%
Office environment or company culture
16.6%
Languages, frameworks, and other technologies I'd be working with
16.4%
Flex time or a flexible schedule
14.5%
Remote work options
13.4%
Opportunities for professional development
11.4%
How widely used or impactful my work output would be
7.9%
Specific department or team I'd be working on
5.5%
Industry that I'd be working in
5.3%
Family friendliness
4.6%
Financial performance or funding status of the company or organization
4.4%
Languages, frameworks, and other technologies I'd be working with
17.9%
Office environment or company culture
15.6%
Flex time or a flexible schedule
15.3%
Opportunities for professional development
14.5%
Remote work options
11.6%
How widely used or impactful my work output would be
7.3%
Industry that I'd be working in
5.4%
Family friendliness
4.2%
Financial performance or funding status of the company or organization
4.2%
Specific department or team I'd be working on
4%

Employment Status

Over 90% of all professional developers are employed full-time in India. In the UK it is similar which is around 87%. Interestingly, around 11% reported that they work as an independent contractor, freelancer, or self-employed in the UK. This is almost two times more than in India.
Employed full-time
92%
Independent contractor, freelancer or self-employed
6.1%
Employed part-time
1.9%
Employed full-time
86.8%
Independent contractor, freelancer or self-employed
11.1%
Employed part-time
2.1%
Employed full-time
90.2%
Independent contractor, freelancer or self-employed
8%
Employed part-time
1.8%
Employed full-time
88.2%
Independent contractor, freelancer or self-employed
10.2%
Employed part-time
1.6%
Employed full-time
89.7%
Independent contractor, freelancer or self-employed
7.5%
Employed part-time
2.8%

How Do Developers Feel About Their Jobs?

Overall, professional developers from the UK tend to be more satisfied with their jobs than Indian ones. Almost 65% reported that they are either slightly or very satisfied with their job in the UK. On contrary, it is approximately 41% in India.
Slightly satisfied
34.6%
Very satisfied
20.5%
Neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
19.4%
Slightly dissatisfied
15.2%
Very dissatisfied
10.3%
Very Satisfied
48.6%
Slightly Satisfied
22.5%
Slightly dissatisfied
13.7%
Neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
8.6%
Very dissatisfied
6.6%
Very Satisfied
34.2%
Slightly Satisfied
30.4%
Slightly dissatisfied
16.6%
Neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
11.5%
Very dissatisfied
7.3%
Very Satisfied
41.6%
Slightly Satisfied
29.4%
Slightly dissatisfied
13.5%
Neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
9.2%
Very dissatisfied
6.3%
Very Satisfied
32.3%
Slightly Satisfied
30.8%
Slightly dissatisfied
15.8%
Neither satisfied nor dissatisfied
12.8%
Very dissatisfied
8.3%
Conclusion
This report has outlined the major differences between the Indian and the UK tech market. Indian employees put a strong emphasis on graduating from their Computer Science studies in order to pursue a successful tech career. There are more professional developers in the UK who attended a college without earning a degree. Additionally, there are more professional UK developers who work as freelancers. This is not the case in India where the majority of developers work full-time and graduate from their university studies. Overall, we see consistent patterns that UK developers are more satisfied with their jobs than Indian developers. Better compensation is the most important factor for both tech markets.
Even though we investigated two very different tech markets, we could see that overall we see very similar patterns, in particular with regard to the technical skill sets that developers apply to the day-to-day work they do.